Writing and Speaking


The race to develop a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, the bacteria that causes COVID-19, has evolved into a sprint. Many of us look forward to the day. When we can start immunizing against this infectious disease.

Some may believe that developing multiple possible vaccinations has occurred too rapidly as finding a fashion design dissertation topics. They wonder whether this is a good or negative thing. Since AI has taken many industries by storm.It has the development of vaccines for various viruses evolved?

The difference between producing a vaccine during a pandemic and developing a vaccine when the disease is less widespread is how much sickness is present in our community. Because there are more opportunities to test the possible vaccine, it can be studied more quickly. Second, the science behind specific vaccination methods is improving for the new scientists, just like it has become more convenient to buy PhD dissertation online. Because of this, timelines are becoming shorter.


The FDA has precisely outlined and controlled the process that researchers must pursue with a possible vaccine. Once researchers have developed a possible vaccine, the manufacturer must apply with the FDA detailing the product, the manufacturing method, and animal testing results.

Following that, the vaccine enters a series of three-phased clinical studies. All steps are completing successfully by the manufacturer.

  • Phase I: The limiting group of peoples are testing for the vaccine’s safety and capacity to elicit an immunological response.
  • Phase II: This phase involves testing many people, maybe hundreds, to find the proper dose levels.
  • Phase III: Thousands of patients are testing to determine the drug’s safety and efficacy.

Before a vaccine is disseminating to the public, the findings of clinical studies must be reviewing, and regulatory clearancing for effectiveness, safety, and production must be obtaine. After the vaccine is distribute, it will be closely monitor to detect any unanticipate adverse side effects and to measure its efficiency in large groups of individuals.



Currently, the FDA has authorized three primary smallpox vaccinations. Dryvax® is one of the early twentieth century’s most widely use in smallpox vaccines. After universal eradication was accomplish in 1982, production was halt. Dryvax® was in stockpile until 2008 when it was supersed by ACAM2000, a 2nd vaccine that was safer while maintaining the same effectiveness profile. MVA-BN is the latest smallpox vaccination. It was authorize in 2013 in Europe and Canada and 2019 in the United States (Saleh, Qamar, Tekin, Singh, & Kashyap, (2021).

  • HPV

In 1983, HPV was discovered in cervical cancer samples for the first time. The first article on the first HPV vaccine clinical trials was published two decades later. In 2006, the FDA approved the first HPV vaccination. Cervical cancer incidence and death have decreased significantly due to universal HPV immunization campaigns.


The two-dose heterologous Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo Ebola vaccination regimens, two different vaccines given 56 days apart, constitute the second vaccine. In July 2020, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) authorized it for medicinal use. While several vaccinating companies are currently being test. Those are the only ones that have authorizing for the Ebola virus family.


Rotavirus was initially discovered in 1973 and was proven to be the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. Since 1981, several phases I-III clinical studies have been done to create a safe Rotavirus vaccine. Under the trade name Rotashield, the first FDA-approved vaccination was released. It took another eight years for a safer rotavirus vaccination to be approved. RotaTeq® was included in the universal immunization program in the United States in 2006. The FDA then approved Rotarix® in 2008. In the United States, a meta-analysis of various case-control studies assessing the efficacy of different rotavirus vaccination types found no statistically significant differences.


It is a virus that causes liver disease. In 1973, the Hepatitis A virus was discovering in the United States for the first time. It took three decades to produce a safe and effective vaccination. Havrix® is the first Hepatitis A vaccine, and it was approve in 1992. Following that, in 1993, the vaccine Vaqta® was approve. In the United States, those are the only approve vaccinations against the Hepatitis A virus.


The 1918 “Spanish flu,” which killed millions of people, was one of the most destructive pandemics. Until 1931, when the influenza virus was identify in sick individuals’ nasal secretions. It was assume that bacteria cause the pandemic. To protect the US military from the Influenza A virus. A successful effort is do to develop a monovalent inactive vaccine in 1938. Soon after, a second strain known as “Influenza B” is find, and the first bivalent vaccination is approve for public use a few years later.

  • COVID 19

The race to produce an effective and safe vaccination began in early 2020. There were soon over 200 candidates in various stages of preclinical and clinical research worldwide. Fewer vaccines made it to phase III of clinical testing, and the first COVID-19 vaccine, developing in conjunction between Pfizer and BioNTech. Are authorize in December 2020. COVID-19 vaccine development is regard as one of the most rapid in vaccination history.

The WHO approved an Urgent Use Listing (EULs) for the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine on December 31, 2020. (mRNA vaccine). The WHO approved a EUL for the AstraZeneca/Oxford COVID-19 vaccine on February 15, 2021. (Adenovirus vector vaccine). The WHO approved a EUL for the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine on March 12, 2021. (Adenovirus vector vaccine). 

Those are the only vaccinations that the EULs are currently providing. The FDA approved Moderna’s other mRNA vaccine on December 18, 2020, and the EMA on January 6, 2021. Other vaccines, such as Sinopharm, CoronaVac, Novavax, and Sputnik, are distributing in other countries. But is not including in the WHO’s Emergency Use Listing.


Vaccines have made a significant contribution to the reduction of infectious disease burden. It all began 500 years ago with the first immunization efforts by the Chinese and Indians. Vaccine development expertise has grown throughout time, and advances in laboratory procedures have saved millions of lives. Furthermore, the exceptional success of COVID-19 vaccinations has contributed yet another piece of data to our arsenal of evidence supporting vaccine efficacy.


Saleh, A., Qamar, S., Tekin, A., Singh, R., & Kashyap, R. (2021). Vaccine Development Throughout History. Cureus, 13(7).

HWD, (2021).  Artificial Intelligence. Online Available at <https://www.helpwithdissertation.co.uk/blog/artificial-intelligence/> [Accessed on 10th June 2022]

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button
hosting satın al minecraft server sanal ofis xenforo