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Storing Grains: Food Grain Storage methods in India

Grain storage and grain aeration play a major role in preventing losses which are caused mainly by insect pests, pathogens, and rodents.

Agriculture is consider one of the chief occupations of people all over the world and in India. Therefore, India has considered an agrarian economy and 70% of the population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Also, in the past few years, there have been some reforms because of which agriculture-based industry has gained momentum. Furthermore, india’s grain production has dropped down to 10% and losses during storage accounts for around 6% of the total losses as proper storage facilities were not available. Grain storage and grain aeration play a major role in preventing losses which are caused mainly by insect pests, pathogens, and rodents.

Even though chemical control of the store product pest is predominant, traditional pest control is still practice in rural areas which isn’t a good practice. The use of fertilizers and pesticides plays a big role in the deterioration of health and environmental damage. Generally, it is estimated that 60%-70% of food grain produce in the country is store at the home level in indigenous storage structures. A study was conduct to collect and document traditional storage practices followed by the farmers in Karnataka State.

Storage Of Grain

With the collected data, there are twenty-four major storage places where farmers keep their grain so that they can easily save them for a longer period. However, the worst thing about keeping the grains in the traditional method is that it becomes more prone to insects and rodents.

But, as every dark cloud has a silver lining, the conventional grain storage technique has a revolutionary grain chiller technique through which grains are kept in the optimum moisture. Getting the wrong technique means quality will surely deteriorate, which can further lead to significant financial losses. Also, if treated in a proper manner, grains such as wheat, barley, and oats can be store for many years which enables farmers to wait for higher prices.

If Grain storage and grain aeration are not done properly, there are many things that can go wrong. Be it from biological spoilage to pest damage, and that is why careful planning and preparation are required before and after the harvest period.

Pre Harvest Preparations

Before harvest, Therefore, it becomes important to clean and prepare the storage areas. And service them with the on-farm grain dryer. It becomes important to use safe fumigation and insecticide products to eradicate insects from the ducts, under perforated floors, or in the grain bins. It becomes important that the grain which is store is of high quality. The compromise grain that has been exposed to moisture or pests will continue to spoil in the long-term storage. It is important for the grain to be hearty and mature. Furthermore, the immature grain will survive less through a long period of storage. If you are planning to keep your grains at the optimum moisture, below mentioned are the temperature range and the moisture balance that you should consider.

                                                 Storage Up to four weeks
Crops Short-term storage Long-term storage
Wheat Keep it below 12C at near about of 14.5% moisture 5C at near about of 14.5% moisture
Barley Keep it below 12C at near about of 14.5% moisture 5C at 14.5% moisture
OSR Keep it below 10C at near about of 14.5% moisture 5C at 8% moisture
Pulses Keep it below 12C at near about of 17% moisture 5C at 15% moisture
Linseed Keep it below 5C at near about of 8% moisture 5C at 15% moisture

Conclusion

Grain storage has become an important aspect for everyone, be it a farmer, a storage facility owner or even a customer. So, if grains are not good in quality, they will be sold at a less price in comparison to the superior ones.

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