The regulation and control of reactive power to improve the performance of alternating current or AC are referred to as Reactive Power Compensation Services and Study. Reactive power compensation is often linked to load and voltage support issues. The goals of load support are to improve voltage regulation, balance the real power consumed from the alternating current supply, and reduce current harmonic components created by huge and fluctuating nonlinear industrial loads. To reduce voltage fluctuation at a transmission line termination, voltage support is usually required. Reactive power adjustment in transmission systems increases the ac system’s stability by raising the maximum active power that may be delivered.
se reactive power has a bigger capacity than is actually necessary, it’s ideal to just use it when it’s needed. If the reactive power is generated by a power plant, the distribution system’s equipment must also be aligned with it.
Electric power networks cannot function without reactive power. Rotation in rotating machinery cannot begin without reactive power, and active power cannot be delivered over transmission lines without reactive power. The ability to adjust or compensate for reactive power has various advantages. To achieve voltage control, positive and/or negative VArs are added or injected into the power system during the reactive power compensation process.
Electrical energy is generated, transferred, distributed, and utilised as alternating current, with a few exceptions (AC). There are, however, some drawbacks. The necessity for reactive power, which must be given in addition to active power, is one of them. It’s possible to be either a leader or a follower. While active power contributes to the quantity of energy consumed or transmitted, reactive power has no such contribution. Reactive power is a component of the system’s total power.
Reactive Power Compensation Services Can Be Provided in a Variety of Ways:
Reactive power compensation services are provided in one of three ways. They are as follows:
Shunt-connected reactors are used to reduce line overvoltages by consuming reactive power, whereas reactive power is compensated on transmission lines by using shunt-connected capacitors to maintain voltage levels. A shunt compensator is always linked in parallel with the transmission line and is always connected in the transmission line’s centre. It can be powered by a capacitor, a current or voltage source, or both. An ideal shunt compensator provides the system’s reactive power.
To reduce voltage drop over long distances and the Ferranti effect, a series compensator line is used to reduce the transmission’s reactive impedance. It is connected in series to the transmission line. At any point along the line, a series compensator can be added. There are two different forms of operation: capacitive and inductive. The magnitudes of the voltages on the two buses are assumed to be identical, and their phase angle is.
Static VAR compensators:
SVCs are electrical devices used in transmission networks to produce reactive power. Static compensators do not show any movement in the system parts, as the name implies. The SVC will employ reactors (usually implemented in the form of thyristor-controlled reactors) to ingest variables from the system, decreasing system voltage if the reactive load of the power system is capacitive (leading). The capacitor banks are automatically switched on when the reactive load is inductive (lagging), resulting in a greater system voltage.
Reactive Power Compensation Services Come in a Variety of Forms:
Capacitors are the most frequent and widely utilised pF correction solution in Reactive Power Compensation Studies around the world, and the following power factor correction kinds are used based on the capacitor’s position.
Distributed power factor correction:
In this sort of power factor correction, capacitor banks are directly connected to the terminal of the load that demands reactive power. This method of installation is both cost-effective and simple. The overcurrent protection device can be used by both the capacitor bank and the load. As a result, it can be attached and disconnected at the same time. For huge loads that will be connected to the system for an extended period of time, this form of power factor adjustment is advised. Distributed power factor adjustment is commonly used in induction motors and fluorescent lighting.
Group power factor correction:
For loads that operate similarly, group power factor correction is commonly applied. A common capacitor bank is provided to increase the power factor. You can use a shared capacitor bank for power factor adjustment if you have three comparable induction motors that are used for the same purpose. This method is similarly cost-effective, however, it should only be used for light loads.
Combined power factor correction:
a combination of two methods: distributed power factor correction and centralised power factor correction, as the name implies. This technology employs distributed power factor correction for huge loads that run constantly. To increase the power factor of tiny equipment, a centralised power factor correction method is also used.
Automatic power factor correction:
The majority of systems do not absorb reactive power consistently due to the equipment’s obvious working cycle. Automatic power factor correction systems are installed in these facilities. Different capacitor banks can thus be turned on and off as needed. These APFC panels, or automatic power factor control panels, are frequently utilised.